Methods of surgical sperm retrieval
The main methods of surgical sperm retrieval available include:
- PESA: Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration.
- MESA: Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration.
- TESA: Testicular sperm aspiration. This includes testicular fine needle aspiration (TFNA).
- TESE: Testicular Sperm extraction
Microdissection TESE. There is “insufficient evidence to recommend any specific form of sperm retrieval technique,” according to a recent Cochrane meta-analysis. The clinical discretion with available resources and expertise should be used to decide on the simplest and least invasive technique whenever possible.