Methods of surgical sperm retrieval

The main methods of surgical sperm retrieval available include:

  • PESA : percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration.
  • MESA : microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration.
  • TESA : testicular sperm aspiration. This includes testicular fine needle aspiration (TFNA).
  • TESE : testicular tperm extraction.
  • Microdissection TESE.