Methods of surgical sperm retrieval
The main methods of surgical sperm retrieval available include:
- PESA : percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration.
- MESA : microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration.
- TESA : testicular sperm aspiration. This includes testicular fine needle aspiration (TFNA).
- TESE : testicular Sperm extraction
There is "insufficient evidence to recommend any specific form of sperm retrieval technique," according to a recent Cochrane meta-analysis.
The clinical discretion with available resources and expertise should be used to decide on the simplest and least invasive technique whenever possible.