PESA/MESA/TESA surgical sperm retrieval


Methods of surgical sperm retrieval

The main methods of surgical sperm retrieval available include:
  •   PESA : percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration.
  •   MESA : microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration.
  •   TESA : testicular sperm aspiration. This includes testicular fine needle aspiration (TFNA).
  •   TESE : testicular Sperm extraction

Microdissection TESE.

There is "insufficient evidence to recommend any specific form of sperm retrieval technique," according to a recent Cochrane meta-analysis.

The clinical discretion with available resources and expertise should be used to decide on the simplest and least invasive technique whenever possible.